E-business Glossary A-H

iSkiv E-business Glossary is an English-French Glossary. It permanently evolves to adapt to ever changing use of words. Below, the letters A to H. You will find the term, a definition or a explanation, and the translation of the term in French. All links below open in a second window.


Access provider

Internet access means the access to a distant computer network to which an individual computer or a network of computers get connected through a phone or broadband line connected to the Internet. The access provider provides the connection network, and usually also an email account at their network.
French: Fournisseur d'accès


The key principle of designing websites and software so that they are sufficiently flexible to meet different user needs, preferences, and situations. Making a website accessible can be simple or complex, depending on many factors such as the type of content, the size and complexity of the site and the development tools and environment. It also depends on the specific user needs to accommodate for users with disabilities for instance.
French: Accessibilité.

Ad space

The space on a web page reserved for displaying advertisements. The assigned space is typically at the top or bottom of a page or, if a small advertisement, in the right or left column. The most desirable ad space is above the fold.
French: Espace de publicité en ligne.

Address (web)

We can write an address or URL (Uniform Resource Locator), when set in the absolute or relative forms. Absolute form: http://somewebsite/index.html identifies a specific page of a specific web site. Relative form: we call a page in the same web area. We can set in two ways: somepage.html (relative to the calling page) if this page is located in the same directory as the present one, or ../somedir/index.html for calling a page in another directory, and /index.html or /en/e-business /e-business.as-a-whole.html (relative to the root of the website) if the page called is anywhere else in the same web area.
French: Adresse Internet or URL.


The Merriam Webster dictionary defines Aggregator as "someone or something that gathers together materials from a variety of sources". Typically, an aggregator is a system or software using aggregation technology to consolidate various sources into one page showing new or updated information from these sources, for instance news. Tools to consolidate searches are called meta search engines. For many users, the interest of such systems is to reduce the time and effort needed to regularly check websites for the purpose of creating or updating information. The limit of automating such tasks is the appearance of originality despite the replication of information. A more interesting use is the discovery of speech and ideas resonance.
French: Agrégateur ou logiciel agrégateur.

Android Operating system

Google s official mobile operating system.
Système d'exploitation Androïde

Animation (web)

In the web arena, animation refers to visual or sound sequences, built with a program and animated through the browser or through a plug-in to the browser. Examples: animated gif image, Macromedia Flash (Adobe proprietary technology)), javascript or CSS (cascading stylesheet) animations, etc. For examples, see our web animations page and associated resources (2nd window)
French: Animation


Authentication for access control is common practice for accessing electronic mail boxes, accounts, services subscribed or specific resources. It typically consists in giving a username or an email address and a password that shall match the ones registered.
French: Authentification


Banner Ad

Banner Advertising refers to a method used by websites to advertise another website or business on a web page through a banner.
French: Bannière publicitaire


The Merriam-Webster dictionary define Blog as "A regular feature appearing as part of an online publication that typically relates to a particular topic". The blog's author signs and posts the article with a link to its biography or website and comments by other people are retained to a single page, generally with the name of the commentator and the date.
French: Blog or blogue

Blog directory

Such directory consists of a searchable database of blogs listed by category and subcategory that usually allow site owners to submit their blog for inclusion. It can help get a blog indexed by search engines.
French: Répertoire de Blogs or Répertoire de Blogues

Bots (short for Robots)

Computer system or program that runs automatically in whole or in part. Search engines use bots to build their indexes of websites. Today (2017) we distinguish between good use of bots, such as those used by search engines and bad use of bots (spammer*, content thieves and, alas, many more). To learn more about search engine bots, see our page Compliance vs SEO
French: Bots or Robots


Branding refers to establishing a significant and differentiated presence in the market to attract and retain customers.
French: Branding or stratégie de marque


A software developed for browsing the web and displaying web pages, surfing from page to page through hyperlinks*. A browser is commonly called a web browser. various types of browser offer different features: text browsers (such as Lynx) can render text only. Typically, a browsers renders text, images, sound, video and a variety of formats. Some browser make use of assistive technology to help peopleFrench: Navigateur


BtoB or B2B for business-to-business, a concept referring to trade and e-Business when the seller as the buyer are businesses, as opposed to business-to-consumer. For deeper information about BtoB marketing, see our page Business To Business Marketing
French: Business-to-business or de professionnel à professionnel or d'entreprise à entreprise.


BtoC for business-to-consumer , a concept referring to trade and e-Business when the seller is a business and the buyer is a consumer. The term "consumer" generally targets individual buyers.
French: BtoC or de professionnel à consommateur or de professionnel à particulier

Business intelligence

Also referred to as BI, Business intelligence, as well as eBusiness strategy relate to actions enabling a better understanding of the business environment and competition, better use of information, more precise definition of the commercial targets, aiming at improving the organization's reactivity and strategies. A note: the term intelligence has multiple meanings in English as in French. In English, the term intelligence is mostly seen for gathering or distributing information, especially secret information ("renseignement", in French). The term "intelligence" used in the business area has a broader meaning in French, encompassing the design, information targeted and gathered, thoughts about it and understanding of the whole picture.
French: Intelligence stratégique

Business-to-business: see BtoB

Business-to-consumer: see BtoC


Call to action

A call to action or CTA refers to an incitement to act intended for the visitor or user. A call to action tells the audience what you want them to do. It can be "Read more", "Learn why", "Order Now" or any other action, generally conducted by clicking on a link.
French: Appel à action.


The word campaign typically applies to advertising*, marketing*, SEO*. A campaign consists in an action, taking place over a given period and involving project goals, KPIs (key performance indicators) and outcomes expected. For instance, we could have a project of prospects' contacts, with the goal of increasing their number, set a KPI of N contacts per week, for an expected outcome of increasing our prospects' contacts by 30% over a period of three months.
French: Campagne

Cascading StyleSheets

Cascading Stylesheets or CSS represent formatted styles for Web pages; styles deal with the appearance of the web page. We can set styles directly in the page, in a head tag called style, or as a distinct file with a .css extension that is called from the web page by a head tag named rel (here rel="stylesheet"). StyleSheets are governed by the specifications from the World Wide Web Consortium. The presence of the term Cascading means the ability to use various stylesheets in cascade for a web page This makes sense when multiple pages share stylesheets.
French: CSS or Feuilles de style imbriquées.

Cloud Computing

Wikipedia defines Cloud Computing as "a type of Internet-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand." Cloud Computing permits to add resources both to local computers, in an office or a network, and to web servers. One of the main characteristics of cloud computing is the ability to increase computing resources as they are needed.
French: Cloud Computing ou Informatique en Nuage.

Common Gateway Interface (CGI)

The CGI (Common Gateway Interface) targets the common programming interface that enable the software execution of specific functions in a Web server environment. The CGI-BIN folder in the web root of a website typically contains such programs.
French: Interface Commune de Passerelle (CGI).


A small file sent from a web server to the local visitor's computer to store information unique to that browser. Cookies are frequently used to adapt content to the visitor's choices, or for e-commerce basket follow-up, by advertisers to track visitor's behaviour.
French: Cookie.

Cooperative environment

Collaborative software environment relays on information and communication technology that makes it possible for more that one person to share data and programs and work together, on more than one computer in a local network or with distant computers.
French: Environnement coopératif.


Wikipedia defines Copywriting as: "written content conveyed through online media and print materials". Copywriting was known for long as writing advertisements. It also refers today (2017) to content writing. Not to be confused with Copyright*
French: Rédaction publicitaire or Rédaction de contenu.

Cost per click (CPC)

Where space is sold for getting clicks on hyperlinks in advertisements, CPC represents the cost for one click.
Coût au clic or CPS.

CTA, see Call to action

Customer relationship managemant

Customer Relationship Management or CRM refers to managing the enterprise's interactions with prospects, customers and clients. Improving the relationship and customer retention, understanding and leveraging their potential.
Frech: Gestion de la relation clients or GRC.


Data architecture

Wikipedia defines data architecture in IT as "composed of models, policies, rules or standards that govern which data is collected, and how it is stored, arranged, integrated, and put to use in data systems and in organizations". Considering both public websites and web applications and intranet applications, data architecture refers to organising, structuring and navigating content from a visitor or user's perspective. To learn more about information and data architecture, see our page Information Architecture
French: Architecture des données.


Considering web applications, databases refers to structured data format or structured data architecture that makes it possible to easily maintain, retrieve and serve data to Web applications (or other apps).
French: Bases de données.


DHTML means Dynamic HTML and covers the joint use of the HTML language, stylesheets and, as needed, script languages for dynamic websites or or for web page animations.
French: HTML dynamique or DHTML.

Digital certificates

A Digital Certificate allows a person or organization to send any data securely over the internet using the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), a mean by which consumers and businesses can utilise the security of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). PKI comprises of the technology to enables secure e-commerce and Internet based communication attachment to an electronic message for security purposes. The most common use of a digital certificate is to verify that a user sending a message is who he or she claims to be, and to provide the receiver with a mean to encode a reply.
French: Certificat numérique.

Directory (Internet)

The word directory is used for Internet directories [such as DMOZ], made by humans or by robots/systems, set up with categories and including a short description of each resource. When advertised in the right category, a website will become visible in the directory.
French: Annuaire Internet or Répertoire Internet.

Domain name

The unique name identifying a website on the Internet network. The Internet network is made from millions computers and networks. Each computer may host more than one IP address that translate into unique domain names The domain names are always built from two parts separated by a comma. A though a server usually hosts more than one domain name, a domain name generally points to a single server. In theory, the domain name suffix is assigned following the type of organizations. For instance: com - corporations, .edu - universities and other institutions, .org - not for profit organisations, .mil - military organisations, .gov - governments,.de germany, etc. New domains, such as .info or .club, target the content type instead of the organization type.
French: Nom de domaine.


E-Business or eBusiness

The concept of e-Business refers to the means to do business through a website; it covers e-services, e-products, e-sales, the supply chain, the relations between an organisation and its customers or clients, individuals or organisations, providers and partners, subsidiaries, employees, etc. As stated in our page titled Selling Online we acknowledge a difference between e-Business and e-Commerce. we reserve E-Commerce for on-line shops and stores, and use E-Business for the whole on-line presence and more 'informal' selling methods.
French: eBusiness or e-business or commerce en ligne.


E-commerce for Electronic commerce targets the ways and means to sell on-line through a Web site. In Europe, the expression is also commonly used in place of e-business. To enter deeper into the matter, see our resource E-Commerce Solutions.
French: Commerce électronique or e-commerce.


EDI stands for Electronic Data Interchange. EDI refers to a standard used for structuring and exchanging commercial information (ISO/IEC/JTC1/SC30) .
French: EDI.


Email stands for electronic mail and means a message, in text, HTML or XML format, sent from a computer to another one through Internet network. An email address has the following form and to format "user@domainname.extension".
French: Courriel or Courrier électronique.


Internet marketing or e-marketing means multi-channel marketing through the Internet: for instance, search engine marketing, social media marketing, email marketing, partner websites, link exchange, etc. To learn more about the E-Marketing concept, see our page Internet Marketing Campaign.
French: E-Marketing.


Excellent Wikipedia definition of Encryption: "In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it. Encryption does not of itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor." In other words, encryption aims at hiding data in such a way that ideally they can be unscrambled and read only by those for whom they are intended. There are multiple strategies and technology for doing so. Encryption is used in many circumstances, such as secure protocols (SSL or secure socket layer protocol for instance), email protection (PGP email encryption for instance), cloud storage (encrypted backup for instance) and many more.
French: cryptage.


The specific business expertise, the core organization's business, its know-how and experience, that represents a fraction of its intangible assets.
French: Expertise.


Ezine for an Electronic Magazine delivered via a website or other electronic means.
French: Ezine or Magazine électronique.



Acronym for Frequently Asked Questions.
French: Questions frequemment posées or Foire aux Questions.


A set of related programs, usually located at the network's gateway that protects a private network's resources from external users. When protecting a computer, a firewall can be seen as a gateway at the ports of the computer, filtering in particular the entering traffic.
French: Pare-feu ou Firewall.


A technology, initially developed by Macromedia and today Adobe proprietary, providing a multimedia platform used to add animation, video, and interactivity to web pages.
French: Flash or Macromedia Flash



A gateway can be defined as a door in a network that serves as an entrance to another network. This door is commonly named a network node. Such door is usually a computer or a specialized device that connect a workstation to the intranet or to the outside network.
French: Gateway or Passerelle.


As the expression says, geotargeting means taking into account the geographical area in the target. This term is used in marketing and advertising. In the marketing area, it indicates that a marketing action may be specific to a given target in a given location. In the advertisement area, it means that an advertisement may be served based on the location of the target.
French: Ciblage géographique internet.


GIF is one of the two most used formats for the Web: Acronym for Graphics Interchange Format. This graphical format uses a compression scheme originally developed by CompuServe. Animated GIF: a GIF image format built from more than one image, sequentially displayed to form an animation.
French: GIF or Format d'Interchange Graphique.

Google alerts

A method to track whether web content about a particular subject or keyword phrase is present on the web and on which website.
French: Alertes Google or Google alerts.

Guest blogging

Blogging on other people's blogs through invitation, posting articles, video, podcasts etc.
French: Blogueur invité.



Wikipedia defines a hashtag as "a type of label or metadata tag used on social network and microblogging services which makes it easier for users to find messages with a specific theme or content. " In other words, a hashtag enables a more targeted way to search for a message or follow it. Example #ReadyToGo2017 could target an event to follow.
French: Hashtag or Mot-dièse or Mot-clic (Canada).

Hits (Web)

Each time a Web page is requested to a Web server, many files are in fact requested by the web page - image files, stylesheet, script, etc. These many requests, when successful ,are named Hits. As an example, for a page with an external stylesheet, an external script and 10 images, we would count 13 hits. Not to confuse with the number of pages seen, which would be 1 in our example. As a matter of facts, the number of hits correponds to the number of http requests.
French: Hits or nombre de requêtes sur un fichier.


Host The term host may refer to a host computer that controls communications in a network or administers a database; or a host computer in a network that provides services to other computers in the network; a server host that hosts one or more websites. To host relates to web hosts.
French: Hôte and Hébergement (web host).

See also Web hosting*

Hosting Provider

The provider of the web server (in whole or in part) that hosts one or more websites on a computer system belonging to the Internet network. So distant users may display the website pages. The provider owns or rent the computer or cloud system or network and provides the adequate routers and server software.
French: Fournisseur d'hébergement or Hébergeur.


HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language, a tag language corresponding to the specifications of the World Wide Web consortium for Web page development. As of 2017, the specifications covers HTML from HTML 2 to HTML 5 and as well XML. Each specification correspond to a specific DOCTYPE, that must be declared and exactly followed so any browser in any user environment may display the page correctly. The Web browsers interpret the DOCTYPE and the HTML or XML tags in order to display the page content to the visitor.
French: Langage HTML.


HTTP STANDS FOR HyperText Transfer Protocol that enables the transfer of hypertext files via the Internet network. An Internet address is preceded by http:// so we use something like http://www.some-domain.com/ to connect to a website.
French: HTTP Protocole de Transfert HyperTexte.


HTTPS stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure and is the prefix to use for the secure HTTP protocol, developed by Netscape in order to allow cyphered data to be transferred through the Internet network. For instance for credit card transactions.
French: HTTPS.


Hyperlinks refers to electronic links providing direct access from one web page or hypermedia document to another one, or to another place in the same. Hyperlinks are supported through the use of specific tags and are typically underlined to let the user know that it is a clickable element.
French: Liens hypertextes.

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Glossary Letters i-z
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H

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